How State Of Mind Fits Into Criminal Defense Law

A defendant's state of mind is often a part of a criminal case. For the prosecution, it might be used as proof that a defendant meant to do harm and understood the consequences of their actions. For a criminal defense attorney, it may be used as evidence that something different than the charges happened, including, potentially, something entirely non-criminal.

Questioning what a person was thinking at the time certain events happened is a big idea with metaphysical overtones. It does have a role in criminal defense law, though, so take a look at what state of mind is and how it might apply to a case.

What Is State of Mind, Legally Speaking?

Whenever something happens, a person almost always feels or thinks about it in a particular way. In the most extreme criminal cases, the defendant might have thought about taking action long before anything happened. For example, planning a bank robbery speaks to a defendant's state of mind.

Notably, even a lack of planning speaks to this issue. If someone is punched and then turns around and immediately hits the attacker, it's reasonable to assume the attacked person felt threatened.

Not All Crimes

It's worth noting that not all offenses require a criminal state of mind. The law is strict about a handful of offenses and always treats them as crimes if they meet the right conditions.

A strong example is statutory rape. It doesn't matter what the defendant's state of mind was at the time they had sex with a minor. The law doesn't care if the defendant knew the age of the other party or not, and it doesn't care if the defendant believed consent had been given. It's strictly illegal.

When Does It Apply?

Generally, the question of what a defendant's state of mind was has some bearing in cases where reasonable explanations for their conduct might exist. State of mind is a big deal for any criminal defense attorney handling an assault case. Under the right circumstances, most people would consider it reasonable to defend themselves if they felt immediately and physically threatened with serious harm.

Proving State of Mind

When this issue comes up, it's normal for both the prosecution and the criminal defense law firm assigned to the case to try to prove what the defendant felt or thought at the time. They may use texts, social media posts, witness accounts of what was said, and recordings to establish what the defendant's state of mind was.

To learn more, contact a criminal defense attorney.